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Friday, 31 August 2012

scientific instruments

  • Altimeter–An instrument used for measuring altitudes in aircraft.
  • Ammeter–An instrument for measuring electric currents in amperes.
  • Anemometer–An instrument for measuring the force and velocity of wind.
  • Audiometer–An instrument for measuring the intensity of sound.
  • Audiophone–An instrument for improving imperfect sense of hearing.
  • Barometer–An apparatus used for measuring the atmospheric pressure.
  • Calorimeter–An instrument used for measuring quantities of heat.
  • Carburettor–An apparatus used in an internal combustion engine for charging air with petrol vapour.
  • Cardiograph–A medical instrument for tracing heart movements.
  • Chronometer–An instrument kept on board ships for measuring accurate time.
  • Crescograph–It is used for measuring growth in plants.
  • Dynamo–The origin of electricity in a dynamo is the transformation of mechanical energy into electrical energy.
  • Galvanometer–An instrument for measuring electric currents of small magnitude.
  • Hydrometer–An instrument used for measuring the specific gravity of liquids.
  • Hydrophone–An instrument for recording sound under water.
  • Hygrometer–An instrument for measuring humidity in air.
  • Lactometer–An Instrument for measuring the relative density of milk.
  • Manometer–An instrument for measuring the pressure of a gases.
  • Mariner's compass–An apparatus used by sailors to know the direction. The needle always points north-south.
  • Microphone–An instrument used for converting sound waves into electrical vibrations and to magnify the sound.
  • Microscope–An instrument used for magnifying minute objects by a lens system.
  • Odometer–An instrument by which the distance covered by wheeled vehicles is measured.
  • Phonograph–An instrument for reproducing sound.
  • Photometer–It is an instrument for measuring the intensity of light; a device for comparing the luminous intensity of sources of light.
  • Polarimeter–An instrument used for measuring optical activity.
  • Pyrometer–An instrument for recording high temperatures from a great distance.
  • Radar–It is an abbreviated form of Radio, Angle, Direction and Range. It is used for detecting the direction and range of an approaching plane by means of radio microwaves.
  • Rain Gauge–An apparatus for recording rainfall at a particular place.
  • Radiometer–An instrument for measuring the emission of radiant energy.
  • Refractometer–An instrument to measure refractive indexes.
  • Seismometer or Seismograph–An instrument for recording earthquake shocks.
  • Sextant–An instrument used for measuring the altitude of the sun and other heavenly bodies.
  • Spectrometer–An instrument for measuring the energy distribution of a particular type of radiation.
  • Speedometer–An instrument which indicates the speed at which a vehicle is moving.
  • Spherometer–An instrument for measuring curvature of surfaces.





























branches of science


  • Acoustics : The study of sound (or the science of sound).
  • Aerodynamics : The study of the motion and control of solid bodies like aircraft, missiles, etc., in air.
  • Aeronautics : The science or art of flight.
  • Aeronomy : The study of the earth's upper atmosphere, including its composition, density, temperature and chemical reactions, as recorded by sounding rockets and earth satellites.
  • Aerostatics : The branch of statics that deals with gases in equilibrium and with gases and bodies in them.
  • Aetiology : The science of causation.
  • Agrobiology : The science of plant life and plant nutrition.
  • Agronomy : The science of soil management and the production of field crops.
  • Agrostology : The study of grasses.
  • Alchemy : Chemistry in ancient times.
  • Anatomy : The science dealing with the structure of animals, plants or human body.
  • Anthropology : The science that deals with the origins, physical and cultural development of mankind.
  • Arboriculture : Cultivation of trees and vegetables.
  • Archaeology : The study of antiquities.
  • Astrochemistry : The study of interstellar matter with a view to knowing the origin of
    universe.
  • Astrology : The ancient art of predicting the course of human destinies with the help of indications deduced from the position and movement of the heavenly bodies.
  • Astronautics : The science of space travel.
  • Astronomy : The study of the heavenly bodies.
  • Astrophysics : The branch of astronomy concerned with the physical nature of heavenly bodies.
  • Autoecology : The study deals with the ecology of species.
  • Bacteriology : The study of bacteria.
  • Biochemistry : The study of chemical processes of living things.
  • Bioclimatology : Studies the effects of climate upon living organisms.
  • Biology : The study of living things.
  • Biometry : The application of mathematics to the study of living things.
  • Biomechanics : The study of the mechanical laws relating to the movement or structure of living organisms.
  • Biometeorology : Studies the effects of atmospheric conditions on living organisms.
  • Bionics : The study of functions, characteristics and phenomena observed in the living world and the application of this knowledge to the world of machines.
  • Bionomics : The study of the relation of an organism to its environments.
  • Bionomy : The science of the laws of life.
  • Biophysics : The physics of vital processes (living things).
  • Botany : The study of plants.
  • Ceramics : The art and technology of making objects from clay, etc. (pottery).
  • Chemistry : The study of elements and their laws of combination and behaviour.
  • Chemotherpy : The treatment of disease by using chemical substances.
  • Chronobiology : The study of the duration of life.
  • Chronology : The science of arranging time in periods and ascertaining the dates and historical order of past events.
  • Climatotherapy : The treatment of disease through suitable climatic environment, often, but not always, found in recognised health resorts. As climate is subject to seasonal variations, the required environment may have to be sought in different
    localities at different periods of the year.
  • Conchology : The branch of zoology dealing with the shells of mollusks.
  • Cosmogony : The science of the nature of heavenly bodies.
  • Cosmography : The science that describes and maps the main features of the universe.
  • Cryobiology : The science that deals with the study of organisms, especially warmblooded animals, at low temperature. The principal effect of cold on living tissues is destruction of life or preservation of it at a reduced level of activity.
  • Crystallography : The study of the structure, forms and properties of crystals.
  • Cryogenics : The science dealing with the production, control and application of very low temperatures.
  • Cryotherapy : Use of cold, but not freezing cold, as a form of treatment. Hypothermia may be deliberately induced during surgery, for instance, to decrease a patient's oxygen requirement.
  • Cytochemistry : The branch of cytology dealing with the chemistry of cells.
  • Cytogenetics : The branch of biology dealing with the study of heredity from the point of view of cytology and genetics.
  • Cytology : The study of cells, especially their formation, structure and functions.
  • Dactylography : The study of fingerprints for the purpose of identification.
  • Dermatology : The study of skin and skin diseases.
  • Ecology : The study of the relation of animals and plants to their surroundings, animate and inanimate.
  • Econometrics : The application of mathematics in testing economic theories.
  • Economics : The science dealing with the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services.
  • Electronics : Studies the development, behaviour and applications of electronic devices and circuits.
  • Electrostatics : It is a study of static electricity.
  • Embryology : The study of development of embryos.
  • Entomology : The study of insects.
  • Epidemiology : The branch of medicine dealing with epidemic diseases.
  • Epigraphy : The study of inscriptions.
  • Ethnography : A branch of anthropology dealing with the scientific description of individual cultures.
  • Ethnology : A branch of anthropology that deals with the origin, distribution and distinguishing characteristics of the races of mankind.
  • Ethology : The study of animal behaviour.
  • Eugenics : The study of the production of better offspring by the careful selection of parents.
  • Fractography : A study of fractures in metal surfaces.
  • Genealogy : The study of family origins and history. It includes the compilation of lists of ancestors and arranging them in pedigree charts.
  • Genecology : The study of genetical composition of plant population in relation to their habitats.
  • Genesiology : The science of generation.
  • Genetics : The branch of biology dealing with the phenomena of heredity and the laws governing it.
  • Geobiology : The biology of terrestrial life.
  • Geobotany : The branch of botany dealing with all aspects of relations between plants and the earth's surface.
  • Geochemistry : The study of the chemical composition of the earth's crust and the changes which take place within it.
  • Geodesy : Methods of surveying the earth for making maps and corelating geological, gravitational and magnetic measurements. It is a branch of geo-physics.
  • Geography : The development of science of the earth's surface, physical features, climate, population, etc.
  • Geology : The science that deals with the physical history of the earth.
  • Geomedicine : The branch of medicine dealing with the influence of climate and environmental conditions on health.
  • Geomorphology : The study of the characteristics, origin and development of land forms.
  • Geophysics : The physics of the earth.
  • Gerontology : The study of old age, its phenomena, diseases, etc.
  • Glaciology : The study of ice and the action of ice in all its forms, and therefore includings now.
  • Gynaecology : A study of diseases of women's reproductive organs.
  • Histology : The study of tissues.
  • Horticulture : The cultivation of flowers, fruits, vegetables and ornamental plants.
  • Hydrodynamics : The mathematical study of the forces, energy and pressure of liquid in motion.
  • Hydrography : The science of water measurements of the earth with special reference to their use for navigation.
  • Hydrology : The study of water with reference to its occurrence and properties in the hydrosphere and atmosphere.
  • Hydrometallurgy : The process of extracting metals at ordinary temperature by bleaching ore with liquids.
  • Hydrometeorology : The study of the occurrence, movement and changes in the state of water in the atmosphere.
  • Hydropathy : The treatment of disease by the internal and external use of water.
  • Hydroponics : The cultivation of plants by placing the roots in liquid nutrient solutions rather than in soil.
  • Hydrostatics : The mathematical study of forces and pressures in liquids.
  • Hygiene : The science of health and its preservation.
  • Limnology : The study of lakes.
  • Lithology : It deals with systematic description of rocks.
  • Mammography : Radiography of the mammary glands.
  • Metallography : The study of the crystalline structures of metals and alloys.
  • Metallurgy : The process of extracting metals from their ores.
  • Meteorology : The science of the atmosphere and its phenomena.
  • Metrology : The scientific study of weights and measures.
  • Microbiology : The study of minute living organisms, including bacteria, molds and
    pathogenic protozoa.
  • Molecular biology : The study of the structure of the molecules which are of importance in biology.
  • Morpbology : The science of organic forms and structures.
  • Mycology : The study of fungi and fungus diseases.
  • Neurology : The study of the nervous system, its functions and its disorders.
  • Neuropathology : The study of diseases of the nervous system.
  • Nosology : The classification of diseases.
  • Numerology : The study of numbers. The study of the date and year of one's birth and to determine the influence on one's future life.
  • Odontology : The scientific study of the teeth.
  • Optics : The study of nature and properties of light.
  • Ornithology : The study of birds.
  • Orthopedics : The science of prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases and abnormalities of musculoskeletal system.
  • Osteology : The study of the bones.
  • Osteopathy : A therapeutic system based upon detecting and correcting faulty structure.
  • Otology : The study of the ear and its diseases.
  • Otorhinolaryngology : Study of diseases of ear, nose and throat.
  • Paleobotany : The study of fossil plants.
  • Paleontology : The study of fossils.
  • Pathology : The study of diseases.
  • Pharyngology : The science of the pharynx and its diseases.
  • Phenology : The study of periodicity phenomena of plants.
  • Philology : The study of written records, their authenticity, etc.
  • Phonetics : The study of speech sounds and the production, transmission, reception, etc.
  • Photobiology : The branch of biology dealing with the effect of light on organisms.
  • Phrenology : The study of the faculties and qualities of minds from the shape of the skull.
  • Phthisiology : The scientific study of tuberculosis.
  • Phycology : The study of algae.
  • Physical Science : The study of natural laws and processes other than those peculiar to living matters, as in physics, chemistry and astronomy.
  • Physics : The study of the properties of matter.
  • Physiography : The science of physical geography.
  • Physiology : The study of the functioning of the various organs of living beings.
  • Phytogeny : The science dealing with origin and growth of plants.
  • Planetology : A study of the planets of the Solar System.
  • Pomology : The science that deals with fruits and fruit growing.
  • Psychology : The study of human and animal behaviour.
  • Radio Astronomy : The study of heavenly bodies by the reception and analysis of the radio frequency electro-magnetic radiations which they emit or reflect.
  • Radiobiology : The branch of biology which deals with the effects of radiations on living organlsms.
  • Radiology : The study of X-rays and radioactivity.
  • Rheology : The study of the deformation and flow of matter.
  • Seismology : The study of earthquakes and the phenomena associated with it.
  • Selenology : The scientific study of moon, its nature, origin, movement, etc.
  • Sericulture : The raising of silkworms for the production of raw silk.
  • Sociology : The study of human society.
  • Spectroscopy : The study of matter and energy by the use of spectroscope.
  • Statistics : The collection and analysis of numerical data.
  • Tectonics : Study of structural features of earth's crust.
  • Teleology : The study of the evidences of design or purpose in nature.
  • Telepathy : Communication between minds by some means other than sensory perception.
  • Therapeutics : The science and art of healing.
  • Topography : A special description of a part or region.
  • Toxicology : The study of poisons.
    Virology : The study of viruses.
  • Zoogeography : The study of the geological distributions of animals.
  • Zoology : The study of animal life.
  • Zootaxy : Classification of animals.

Tuesday, 28 August 2012

INTERSTING PI FACTS

*. Pi is an irrational number. It means that it cannot be written as the ratio of two integer numbers. 22/7 is a popular one used for Pi but it is only an approximation, which equals to 3.142857143...
*. Another characteristic of pi as an irrational number is the fact that it takes an infinite number of digits to give its exact value , i.e. you can never get to the end ofit.
*

. One of the most accurate fractions for Pi is 104348 / 33215. it is accurate to 0.00000001056%
*. First 100 digits
3.1415926535 8979323846 2643383279 5028841971 6939937510 5820974944 5923078164 0628620899 8628034825 3421170679...
*. 1.2411 trillion digits (1,241,100,000,000) digits of pihave been dicovered
*. You can determine your hat size by measuring the circumference of your head, then divide by Pi and round off to the nearest one_eighth inch.
*. The height of an elephant (from foot to shoulder) = 2 *Pi * the diameter of its foot.
*. The Babylonians, in 2000 B.C. were the first people known to find a value for Pi.
*. Pi day is celebrated on March 14 at the Exploratorium in San Francisco (March 14 is 3/14) at 1:59 PST which is 3.14159.
*. Pi Approximation Day is on the 22 / 7 - that is, July 22. For the past few years, people at Chalmers University have celebrated it.
cally tear through the night sky and trying to make them grant our wishes, we still haven’t managed to figure out where exactly they all originate from.
Do they come from the asteroid belt? Are they created in a comet’s death throes? Are they random pieces of space junk? NASA is now attempting to answer these questions with a network of smart cameras scattered all across the United States. So far these cameras tell scientists the size of every single meteor in the night sky, track their orbits, calculate their trajectory through the atmosphere, and determine whether and if so where, they will hit Earth.
Hopefully, as the technology develops and as patterns are spotted, scientists will be able to pinpoint where all these meteors are coming from too.


Monday, 27 August 2012